Friday, June 26, 2020

An Exploration of Differing Conceptions of Love and Friendship in An Ideal Husband - Literature Essay Samples

Love and friendship were major themes for Society Drama during the 1890s. An established ‘stock storyline’ of the period was that of domestic life affected by a predicament, concluding in the reassertion of common ideas: fidelity, duty, forgiveness, etc. Although An Ideal Husband adopts these motifs, it also parodies them through the exaggerated conceptions of love and friendship each character represents. The play therefore accomplishes an exploration of differing conceptions through the assorted types of love the characters embody. The stage directions upon introducing the characters initiate this idea. For example, Lady Chiltern is a ‘grave Greek beauty’ , highlighting her serious nature and foreboding her strict ideals regarding loving her husband. On the other hand, Lord Goring is a ‘flawless dandy’, linking his ‘type’ with the freer ideas of beauty, style and art – more representative of Wilde’s own view on life and love. The stark contrast between each character allows Wilde to explore their individual conceptions of love and highlight the advantages and flaws of each accordingly.Lady Chiltern’s conception of love appears to alter Wilde’s message within the play. Her notion of love in the beginning is overtly feminine and Wilde exaggerates her view of her husband until it borders on the ridiculous. She claims she ‘worshipped him’ and that he was the ‘ideal of her life’. In making Lady Chiltern so morally upstanding that she threatens to leave Sir Robert because he has stained his otherwise stainless character, she appears laughable to the audience. ‘We women worship when we love; and when we lose our worship, we lose everything’ is one such hyperbolic statement used to highlight the unreasonable nature of her love. ‘Worship’ is linked inextricably to ‘everything’ within the line, implying there is nothing else within her love for Sir Robert, additionally revealing her view on friendship as an element of love – it is non-existent, there is only idealism. She also speaks for all women (‘we’), again furthering the idea that she is a type, representative of all feminine love in Wildes view. Parodying her view of love guides the audience to see her high-moral standing is not approved by Wilde, implying An Ideal Husband serves to highlight the flaws of such a conception of love. This is contrasted by the apparent change in her views at the end of the play when she comments ‘We have both been punished. I set him up too high’ , reflecting the ‘lesson’ the ordeal has taught her. By allowing her to realise her mistake Wilde explores her flawed notion of love and suggests to the audience that they should not make the same error. He champions his own inverse conception of love, that of passion and forgiveness, without such strict morals. An Ideal Husband also appears to comment on the modern feminine role within relationships. Although Wilde encouraged the idea of the â€Å"new Victorian woman† – someone who is morally upstanding and intellectually supportive of her husband’s career – he conveys through Lady Chiltern that such high morals need not be applied to love. While accepting her intelligence has an ‘ennobling effect on life’ , her moral standing towards love brings ‘ruin’ to the life of Sir Robert, suggesting it is flawed. A further exploration of feminine love is illustrated through the comments of Mrs Marchmont and Lady Basildon. They both ‘have the most admirable husbands in London’ but are ‘well punished for it’, demonstrating again that ideals are not as important as passion. Wilde combines both the old (Mrs Marchmont and Lady Basildon) and new (Lady Chiltern) generation of femininity and through exploring their conceptions of love he sh ows neither to be happy in passionless love. In suggesting they have unexciting marriages, ‘there is not the smallest element of excitement in knowing him’ and highlighting the flaws of Lady Chiltern’s notion of love Wilde again appears to advocate his own, more natural concept. Idealising is also rejected in another of Wildes plays. Mrs Erlynne of Lady Windermere’s Fan observes that ‘ideals are dangerous things. Realities are better. They wound, but they’re better ’(4.1.308). Lady Chiltern’s transformation throughout the play reinforces this idea, she is indeed ‘wounded’ by the idea her husband is not what she set him up to be. However, I would argue that the Chiltern’s marriage is ‘better[ed]’ by their new openness, and with forgiveness now part of their love they experience a higher level of love and trust. Lady Chiltern says it is ‘love and only love’ she feels for her husband now , a contrast to her cold moral feeling at the beginning of the play. Thus the play operates to highlight the effect of forgiveness on love using her transition between differing conceptions within the playSir Robert Chiltern, however, represents a different concept of love entirely, one that can be interpreted as masculine (in his own words: ‘man’s love’). This offers a different understanding of love, when ‘[men] love women [they] love them knowing their weaknesses, their follies, their imperfections, and love them more for it’. It acts in stark contrast to Lady Chiltern’s strict idealistic view and conveys to the audience key themes of the play – forgiveness and the imperfection of human nature. If the couple had followed this masculine conception of love from the start of their marriage Sir Robert would have felt comfortable enough to reveal his faults to his wife earlier, and have her love him all the more for it. The contrast in vi ews of the couple offers evidence as to how and also why An Ideal Husband is an exploration of differing conceptions of love. It is forgiveness within love that Wilde is promoting, and through exploring the flaw of the feminine concept he conveys through Sir Robert that forgiveness and love should prevail over false worship and high morality. ‘Love should forgive’ is the sentiment at the centre of Chiltern’s melodramatic speech at the end of act two, ultimately the representation Wilde is encouraging. Moreover, Sir Robert lacks the ‘courage’ to ‘come down and show [Lady Chiltern] his wounds’ he feels he needs to remain the perfect English gentleman in both public and private life. This was a particularly relevant theme of society at the time, and by exploring this ‘purity’ through the concept of love, Wilde is also making a personally significant observation on society. He himself gave the appearance of being a happily marr ied Victorian father; in reality he was leading a homosexual double life – in his own phrase, ‘feasting with panthers ’. Chiltern’s view on love and the manner it is explored arguably represent Wilde’s own disdainful view of society, he is built up on a pedestal with his talent, but society’s supposed moral view on love restricts him being his true self. Further personal similarities between playwright and character can also be observed in Lord Goring and his conception of love, friendship and life. Goring’s view on love is inherently based on Aestheticism, a movement supported by Wilde that encouraged style and passion whilst rejecting Victorian moral structures. Lord Goring ‘plays with life’ and states ‘it is love, and not German philosophy, that is the true explanation of this world’ , showing that he is as distanced from the moral ideals of Lady Chiltern as possible, and instead lives his life through fee ling. By exploring this different conception of love Wilde emphasises love as a theme within the play by showing it to override all adversity through honesty and forgiveness – represented by Goring. He encourages both Sir Robert and Lady Chiltern to revert to aesthetic love, as opposed to their own differing conceptions. The former he entreats to be honest with his wife and to break her ‘ideal’, ‘you must begin by telling you’re wife the whole story’, as he knows the power of forgiveness within love. To the latter, Goring relates the value of forgiveness by advising her ‘Women are not meant to judge us, but to forgive us when we need forgiveness’ , sparking the positive transition observed within Lady Chiltern. Furthermore, throughout the play Goring guides Lady Chiltern away from her ideal notion of love, ‘often you don’t make sufficient allowances. In every nature there are elements of weakness’. These exampl es encompass Goring’s understanding that the act of forgiveness is a crucial part of marriage, whereby human imperfection is acknowledged. It is plausible that Wilde had no intention of exploring differing conceptions of love in this way. He was himself an aesthete and advocated beauty over meaning, leading him possibly to have written the play as ‘art for art’s sake’, however I would disagree. Fundamentally, An Ideal Husband explores the other character’s conceptions of love and highlights their faults, ultimately conveying natural, forgiving love advocated throughout by Goring prevailing over unnecessary morality. Nevertheless, the play does not seem to explore as many differing conceptions of friendship as it does with love, and does so less didactically. Lord Goring is described by Sir Robert as his ‘best friend’ and constantly supports him throughout the play, eventually saving him from ruin. His conception of friendship appears heroic, providing support for Sir Robert by reiterating ‘you’re wife will forgive you’ in Sir Robert’s darkest moments and serving as the ‘one friend [Sir Robert] can trust’ . There are hints of distrust though, such as Goring imploring Lady Chiltern to ‘come to me at once’ , however this seems to serve as a dramatic device for Wilde to create doubt regarding his character’s integrity. Eventually this enhances Lord Goring in the view of the audience as we see his good intentions as a friend. Conversely, these examples act more to support Wilde’s positive representation of Dandyism, characterised by Goring, than to thoroughly explore differing conceptions of friendship. The only alternative conception offered is through the characters of Baron Arnheim and Mrs Cheveley. The Baron uses his friendship to corrupt Sir Robert into believing his ‘gospel of gold’ and it is further hinted that his friendship wi th Mrs Cheveley is based on money. In addition, Mrs Cheveley reduces the idea of marriage to a purely mercantile state by abusing Goring’s friendship and effectively blackmailing him (however this serves more as an exploration of a different love concept, one void of any feeling, morally or passionately). I would argue that these differing conceptions of friendship are utilised merely as a plot device. Lord Goring’s notion of friendship, as the supposed ‘hero’ of the play is based on trust and guidance, whereas Mrs Cheveley, very much the villain, is keen on advancing herself financially. Thus, the idea of friendship within the play is used more to highlight the particular characteristics and intentions of characters rather than serving to explore differing conceptions of friendship in detail.Perhaps the most differing conception of love and friendship is the pairing of Lord Goring and Mabel Chiltern. They act as polar opposites to Sir Robert and Lady Chil tern, by combining both friendship and unconditional love. Goring comments in his usual ironic manner that ‘affection comes when people thoroughly dislike each other’ , a remark that reflects the playful sentiment between the two throughout the play. They reject the notion of the ideal, thus reversing the Chiltern’s idea of love, both embracing their imperfections. Mabel states ‘I delight in your bad qualities. I wouldn’t have you part with one of them’ whilst also wanting to be a ‘real wife’ , not a stainless, perfect one. Through such a contrast Wilde seems to comment that humanity will always fall short of its ideals, but love will still prevail. Wilde once observed, ‘Women have always had an emotional sympathy with those they love[;] intellectual sympathy [is now] also possible. He was commenting on the changes in society at the time with regard to women and I believe Mabel Chiltern is a reaffirmation of this idea; she is both younger and prettier than Lady Chiltern, representing a positive change. Wilde is advocating that women should now love men passionately and not make false idols of them. Furthermore, Mabel is intelligent, however she still rejects an ‘ideal husband’, thinking the idea to be ‘something in the next world ’. It appears however, to be in the past world, with Wilde now promoting a fresher outlook on relationships.To conclude, Wilde does explore differing conceptions of love within the play, demonstrating the flaws of existing concepts within society and highlighting the benefits of his own Wildean model through Lord Goring and Mabel Chiltern. I would disagree with the notion that he explores differing conceptions of friendship; rather he champions a movement towards a combination of natural love and trusting friendship.

Sunday, May 24, 2020

24 formas de sacar permiso de residencia green card

Son muchas las formas para emigrar legalmente  a Estados Unidos y obtener el permiso de residencia permanente, tambià ©n conocida como la green card o tarjeta verde. Esta tarjeta de residencia autoriza a  vivir y trabajar en Estados Unidos sin là ­mite de tiempo e, incluso, da la opcià ³n de solicitar  convertirse en ciudadano americano por medio de la naturalizacià ³n. Los caminos para obtener la preciada green card  son muy variados. A continuacià ³n se describen las opciones de las que se dispone, pero hay que tener en cuenta que los trà ¡mites, los requisitos,  y los tiempos de demora de todo el proceso son muy diferentes. Se finaliza este artà ­culo con una explicacià ³n de dà ³nde pueden surgir los problemas que retrasan o hacen imposible sacar la green card. 1- Green card por matrimonio con ciudadano americano   El  matrimonio con un ciudadano americano es una de las formas mà ¡s comunes y rà ¡pidas de obtener la residencia permanente. Sin embargo, sà ³lo casarse no significa que se obtenga la residencia de forma automà ¡tica sino que el cà ³nyuge ciudadano debe solicitarla. Ademà ¡s, la presentacià ³n de la peticià ³n  tampoco significa que siempre se pueda sacar. La residencia permanente por matrimonio es tanto en los casos de matrimonios heterosexuales como los formados por dos personas del mismo sexo. Aclarar que no se puede obtener la ciudadanà ­a americana por casarse con ciudadano, lo que se saca es la residencia y, al cabo de tres aà ±os de tiempo casado con un ciudadano, entonces el residente puede solicitar la naturalizacià ³n y, asà ­, hacerse ciudadano. Finalmente seà ±alar que los ciudadanos tienen a su alcance la opcià ³n de solicitar una  visa K-1 para traer a sus novios o prometidas  y, una vez en Estados Unidos, casarse y aplicar por un  ajuste de estatus  como paso para obtener la residencia.   2- Green card solicitada por ciudadano para hijos solteros  menores de 21 aà ±os Estos casos aplican a hijos biolà ³gicos o adoptados y tambià ©n a  hijastro de ciudadano americano, si bien, en este à ºltimo, caso aplican reglas especiales. Estas peticiones son rà ¡pidas, tomando generalmente menos de 1 aà ±o. 3-  Green card para viudos de ciudadanos Los viudos de ciudadanos americanos pueden solicitar, en determinados casos, la green card para sà ­ mismos.   4- Green card para hijastros  de ciudadanos fallecidos Para beneficiarse los hijastros de ciudadanos fallecidos deben cumplir con varios requisitos, entre ellos, ser solteros y de 21 aà ±os.   5- Green card para padre o madre de ciudadano Los hijos de ciudadanos deben de tener 21 aà ±os cumplidos para poder solicitar la green card para cualquiera de sus padres.  El simplemente  ser padre o madre de un nià ±o ciudadano  no da derechos migratorios. 6- Green card para hijo de ciudadano que està ¡ soltero y es mayor de 21   Es lo que se conoce como un F1. Las demoras en estas tramitaciones està ¡ entre los 6 y los 20 aà ±os, dependiendo del caso,  y se pueden verificar en el boletà ­n de visas. 7-Green card para hijo casado de ciudadano, sin importar su edad Esta peticià ³n, tambià ©n llamada categorà ­a F3,  se demora por aà ±os, incluso dà ©cadas, siendo mayor la espera para el caso de los mexicanos que para el resto de Latinoamà ©rica y Espaà ±a.   8-Green card para hermanos de ciudadanos Esta tarjeta de residencia que se conoce como categorà ­a F4  se encuentra entre las que tienen una demora mayor. Sà ³lo los ciudadanos mayores de 21 aà ±os pueden pedir a sus hermanos. 9- Green card para cà ³nyuge de residente permanente Estas peticiones, que se conocen como categorà ­a F2A, son muy parecidas a las que pueden presentar los ciudadanos, sin embargo, su tramitacià ³n se diferencia en puntos importantes. Por ejemplo, se demoran mà ¡s las solicitudes de residentes. Otra diferencia importante es que los cà ³nyuges de residentes que està ¡n como indocumentados en Estados Unidos en ningà ºn caso pueden ajustar su estatus, sin embargo, en el caso de los cà ³nyuges de ciudadanos, à ©stos pueden hacerlo siempre y cuando hubieran ingresado legalmente a EE.UU. En la prà ¡ctica esta diferencia tiene importantes consecuencias legales ya que los indocumentados que no pueden ajustar su estatus y deben salir del paà ­s para ir a la entrevista consular se encuentran con que les aplica el castigo de los 3 o de los 10 aà ±os por presencia ilegal. 10- Green card para hijos solteros de residentes permanentes Estos son los tiempos de demora para este tipo de peticiones.  En este caso caben dos situaciones: para menores de 21 aà ±os, que se conoce como categorà ­a F2A, y para mayores de dicha edad, que son los F2B. En ningà ºn caso los residentes pueden pedir a sus hijos casados. 11- Green card por suerte por medio de la loterà ­a Al ganar una de las 50,000 visas de inmigrante que se sortean cada aà ±o fiscal en la  loterà ­a de la diversidad. Participar en este sorteo es gratuito y se abre la inscripcià ³n en el mes de octubre, permaneciendo abierta por un mes y producià ©ndose el sorteo al aà ±o siguiente en primavera. 12- Green card por inversià ³n que cree puestos de trabajo Invirtiendo un mà ­nimo de medio millà ³n de dà ³lares, mediante la visa EB-5. Se admite una inversià ³n directa creando una empresa o una indirecta, siendo posible  diversas modalidades. A diferencia de lo que ocurre en otros paà ­ses, en Estados Unidos la inversià ³n en una casa u otro bien raà ­z por sà ­ misma no es causa para obtener la tarjeta de residencia. Ya que es necesario que se trate de inversià ³n en un negocio. 13- Green card por autopatrocinio Peticià ³n para uno mismo sin necesidad de patrocinador de la tarjeta de residencia mediante una visa EB-1 en el caso de profesionales con una habilidad extraordinaria en Arte, Ciencias, Deporte, Educacià ³n o Negocios. Ejemplo: ganadores de premios Oscar, olimpiadas, premios Pulitzer o semejantes. Realmente el standard para cumplir con estos requisitos es muy alto. 14- Green card por trabajo en las categorà ­as EB 1, EB2 y EB3 En estos casos es necesario que una empresa o institucià ³n de los Estados Unidos patrocine ante las autoridades de inmigracià ³n al empleado extranjero. Mediante la visa EB-1 para profesores e investigadores de extraordinaria capacidad y gerentes o ejecutivos de multinacionales.Por la EB-2 para licenciados con al menos cinco aà ±os de experiencia laboral o con una habilidad excepcional en Arte, Negocios o Ciencias.Mediante la EB-3 para licenciados, trabajadores con formacià ³n profesional que requiere al menos dos aà ±os de estudios prà ¡cticos o de experiencia laboral y tambià ©n para trabajadores sin ningà ºn tipo de formacià ³n profesional pero que desarrollan una labor que no es temporal y para la que no hay trabajadores disponibles en Estados Unidos.   15- Green card  por categorà ­a de inmigrantes especiales Mediante este camino instituciones y empresas estadounidenses pueden patrocinar mediante una EB-4 a las siguientes categorà ­as de trabajadores: Sacerdotes, monjas, ministros religiosos que lleven al menos dos aà ±os como tales.Periodistas, reporteros, escritores, traductores, productores y trabajadores semejantes que trabajen para el BBG (Radio Free Asia, Radio Liberty, etc).Mà ©dicos.Miembros de las Fuerzas Armadas de los Estados Unidos.Trabajadores de organizaciones internacionales.Traductores afganos e iraquà ­es.Iraquà ­es que han ayudado de alguna manera a los Estados Unidos.Empleados de la Zona del Canal de Panamà ¡.Trabajadores jubilados de la OTAN o, si han fallecido, sus viudos e hijos. 16- Green card para cubanos Obviamente, los cubanos pueden obtener la green card de todas las formas admitidas para otros nacionales, pero ademà ¡s y por aplicacià ³n de la Ley de Ajuste Cubano, pueden solicitar la green card  despuà ©s de un aà ±o en Estados Unidos. Desde que se puso fin a la polà ­tica de pies secos, pies mojados es siendo imprescindible que el ingreso se hubiera realizado  de forma legal. En otras palabras, porque en el control migratorio se le permitià ³ el ingreso como admitido o recibià ³ un parole. 17- Green card para asilados   Las personas que han ganado un caso de asilo pueden solicitar una tarjeta de residencia para sà ­ mismo y tambià ©n para su familia inmediata. 18-Green card para refugiados   Las figuras de refugiado y de asilado son muy parecidas, pero hay importantes diferencias entre ellas. Los refugiados que solicitan la tarjeta de residencia para sà ­ mismos tambià ©n pueden solicitarla para familiares inmediatos. 19- Green card para và ­ctimas de violencia Se pueden beneficiar de esta opcià ³n las personas extranjeras và ­ctimas de violencia a las que previamente se les ha aprobado una visa U. En este punto hay que entender muy bien los requisitos de dicha visa, ya que da lugar a muchas confusiones.   El ser và ­ctima de violencia no da derecho, por ese mero hecho, a obtener la visa U. 20- Green card para và ­ctimas de violencia domà ©stica El programa VAWA abre el camino para la green card para los cà ³nyuges de ciudadanos o de residentes permanentes que han sufrido violencia domà ©stica. 21-Green card para và ­ctimas de trata de personas Para poder solicitar la tarjeta de residencia es necesario tener previamente aprobada la visa T. 22- Green card por  radicar en Estados Unidos por mucho tiempo Por vivir de forma continuada en EEUU desde el uno de enero de 1972 o antes y poder demostrarlo. Es lo que se denomina residencia por el registry. En contra de lo que muchos migrantes creen, por vivir 10 aà ±os en Estados Unidos no se obtiene la green card. En algunos casos de migrantes con procedimientos de deportacià ³n abiertos, serà ­a posible obtener una cancelacià ³n de la deportacià ³n. 23-Green card por ser inmigrantes juveniles especiales: SIJ Los menores de 21 aà ±os que està ¡n solteros a los que el gobierno de Estados Unidos ha colocado bajo la custodia de un guardià ¡n o de una institucià ³n pà ºblica o privada porque han sido abusados o abandonados por uno de sus padres o los dos. A este grupo de muchachos se les conoce como Inmigrantes Juveniles Especiales o SIJ, por sus siglas en inglà ©s. 24- Green card por orden judicial de un juez en Corte migratoria En un caso de deportacià ³n, un juez de inmigracià ³n puede sentenciar que el extranjero se puede quedar porque no califica para la remocià ³n o porque ha obtenido una forma de alivio que le permite ajustar su estatus y, asà ­, conseguir una tarjeta de residencia. Tiempos de demora en la tramitacià ³n de la green card Cada categorà ­a tiene sus propios tiempos. En la actualidad mà ¡s de un millà ³n de personas obtienen la green card cada aà ±o fiscal. Algunos han esperado solamente unos meses, mientras que otros han tenido que esperarse incluso mà ¡s de 25 aà ±os para que hubiera una visa de inmigrante disponible para ellos. Esto se debe a que en muchas categorà ­as existen là ­mites anuales al nà ºmero de peticiones que pueden ser aprobadas y el nà ºmero de solicitudes es superior al de visas disponibles, En estos casos se produce al demora que, cada aà ±o, aumenta mà ¡s. Cuà ¡ndo es posible no pagar por aplicacià ³n para la residencia En casos de residencia por circunstancias especiales (inmigrantes juveniles con este estatus reconocido, registry, visa T, visa U, etc) serà ­a posible calificar para estar exento de pagar la tarifa de este trà ¡mite migratorio para obtener la residencia. Causas por las que la tramitacià ³n no acaba bien A pesar de cumplir los requisitos para calificar para un camino para la obtencià ³n de la green card el proceso puede no completarse por diversas causas. Por ejemplo, en el caso de peticiones de familia porque no se tengan recursos suficientes para patrocinar. Pero los problemas suelen surgir porque la persona que aspira a la green card es considerada inadmisible para los Estados Unidos. Las causas pueden ser muy distintas, desde rà ©cord de delitos a estancia ilegal en el paà ­s. Cabe destacar que, en la actualidad, la negacià ³n por parte de USCIS de un ajuste de estatus es considerado como una causa de prioridad para la deportacià ³n. Dependiendo de las razones y de las circunstancias del caso, puede que sea posible solicitar un perdà ³n, tambià ©n conocido como waiver o permiso. Pero en otros casos serà ¡ imposible. Lo mejor es asesorarse con un buen abogado. Por su frecuencia, es muy importante saber cà ³mo puede afectar la presencia ilegal en Estados Unidos, actual o en el pasado y tambià ©n los fraudes migratorios. Carga pà ºblica Por à ºltimo, cabe destacar la posible negacià ³n de la visa de inmigrante o del ajuste de estatus para obtener la green card por ser considerado carga pà ºblica. El gobierno de Donald Trump ha diseà ±ado una nueva normativa sobre los factores que deben tenerse en cuenta, como edad, trabajo, estudios, ingresos, patrimonio, conocimiento de inglà ©s, etc. para determinar si un migrante es carga pà ºblica y ha extendido los beneficios pà ºblicos que pueden considerarse carga pà ºblica. Las nuevas reglas deberà ­an aplicarse a partir del 15 de octubre para todas las peticiones nuevas y pendientes de aprobacià ³n. Sin embargo, varias à ³rdenes judiciales han paralizado su aplicacià ³n por USCIS o por el Departamento de Seguridad Interna y se està ¡ a la espera de una orden judicial que determine si finalmente se puede aplicar o no la nueva normativa sobre carga pà ºblica y beneficios pà ºblicos. Sin embargo, las nuevas directrices sà ­ que pueden ser aplicadas por el Departamento de Estado, es decir, consulados y embajadas, que podrà ¡n aprobar o negar visas a partir del 15 de octubre de 2019 en base a las nuevas reglas sobre carga pà ºblica. En relacià ³n a la carga pà ºblica pero distinto es el requisito de seguro mà ©dico para las visas de inmigrante a partir del 3 de noviembre de 2019. De interà ©s para potenciales migrantes Estados Unidos es un paà ­s diferente. En muchos casos, hay leyes, costumbres, impuestos, derechos, deberes, etc se desconocen.  Y como consecuencia de esa ignorancia, en ocasiones se acaban teniendo  problemas  muy serios aun cuando no se tenà ­a la intencià ³n. Por ello, no hay nada mejor que conocer las cosas bà ¡sicas que se deben conocer y las que se deben evitar.  Si es posible  se recomienda  informarse antes de emigrar.   Es tambià ©n importante saber que vez que una persona se convierte en residente tiene que esperar un tiempo antes de aplicar por la ciudadanà ­a por naturalizacià ³n. La espera depende de varios factores . Ademà ¡s, es necesario tomar un examen de inglà ©s y de conocimientos cà ­vicos y de historia. Numerosas organizaciones en todo el paà ­s brindan clases gratuitas para preparar el examen para la ciudadanà ­a. Finalmente, si se està ¡ abierto a emigrar a un paà ­s que no sea Estados Unidos, estos son 20 paà ­ses en los que es posible comprar la ciudadanà ­a o/y la residencia. Las cantidades y las condiciones varà ­an entre los distintos programas. Test de respuestas mà ºltiples sobre la residencia permanente Se recomienda tomar este quiz o test de respuestas mà ºltiples, con sus respuestas correctas, para garantizar el conocimiento esencial sobre la green card. Este es un artà ­culo informativo. No es asesorà ­a legal.

Monday, May 18, 2020

International Non Governmental Organisations Play An...

Introduction Currently, a lot of global issues are becoming confused and more serious because of globalization. Since Cold War, the number of conventional war between countries has reduced and it seems that finally we obtain peaceful world on the surface. However, it is certain that a new type of opposition has emerged which we call ‘international conflict’, and this is more complicated than conventional war to address resolution. Because of diversity and ambiguity of international conflict, the role of each actor, for example, the UN, government, and especially NGOs has been broader and more vital to keep sustainable peace. In this situation, can international non-governmental organisations play an effective role in resolving international conflicts? It seem that the work of NGOs are unfamiliar than other organisations. In this essay, an argument focuses on what international conflict is, what the specific role of NGO is in this field, and comparing role of NGO to other actors†™ role mentioning examples. Besides, at last, some suggestions concerned with this issue will be suggested. What is the international conflict? A Conflict is an uncertain concept which is defined such as ‘fight, games and debates’ (Rapoport, 1960), and this argument is still debatable. There are mainly two kind of traditional conflict which are ‘consensual’ conflict and ‘dissensual’ conflict. This concept is also uncertain academically because each person has used these concept in different ways orShow MoreRelatedThe Issue Of Child Soldiers1783 Words   |  8 Pagesmore children are being subject to this cruel act. Many world media and Non-governmental organisations such as the guardian and Human rights watch have reported thousands of child soldiers in Myanmar Burma. The Convention on the rights of a child and the Universal declaration of human rights strictly prohibits children in armed conflict further the United Nations further prohibits children in armed conflicts. The International Criminal Court has previously dealt with Thomas Labunga a leader of theRead MoreTheoretical Frame work on- Non Governmental Organisations and International Non Governmental Organisations (Support Base, Funding Pattern and Relation with State)9266 Words   |  38 PagesTheoretical Framework on- Non Governmental Organisations and International Non Governmental Organisations (Support base, Funding pattern and Relation with State) Introduction It would serve well to remember at the outset what is now a well-known and widely accepted fact of social reality that, the rise of the phenomenon of development including sustainable development has brought about integration, synthesis and unity of all social sciences into a single Social Science (Seymour Martin Lipset, 1972Read MoreEssay Effectiveness of Legal and Non Legal Measures in World Order1057 Words   |  5 PagesEvaluate the effectiveness of legal and non-legal measures in resolving conflict and working towards word world order. Introduction World order are the activities and relationship between the world states, and other significant non-state global actors, that occur within a legal, political and economic frame work. The need for world order has arisen due to the past historical conflicts, colonialism, greater interdependence between nations, and the increased impact of the activities of nation statesRead MoreNon State Actors Essay1472 Words   |  6 PagesEnvironment now become a global issue. For that reason, non-state actors such as: NGOs and activists participate to solve this problem. However, their participations are almost affecting population’s idea or cooperating with firms and even lobbying policies (O’Neil, 2009). These actions can be considered as effort of non-state actors, but not directly protect environment. Therefore, non-state actors alone is not enough to deal with environmental problems that require a dependence of them on stateRead MoreInternational Organizations1784 Words   |  8 PagesInternational organizations have been noted to be around since the mid- 19th century and such organizations do not operate for profit. An international organization is defined by the United Nations as an  organization  with an international membership, scope, or presence. The main objective of all the international organizations they say ,have usually been welfare and the improvement of member countries through cooperation. Karns and Mingst identify the two main types of international organizationsRead MoreSports as a Tool of Integration1725 Words   |  7 Pagesmeans, and may require a degree of skill, especially at higher levels. Hundreds of sports exist, including those for a single participant, through to those with hundreds of simultaneous participants, either in teams or competing as individuals. Some non-physical activities, such as board games and card games are sometimes referred to as sports, but a sport is generally recognised as being based in physical athleticism. What is integration? According the same Dictionary , the meaning of â€Å"integration†Read MoreHuman Trafficking And Slavery : A Violation Of The Universal Declaration Of Human Rights3225 Words   |  13 Pagesviolation of numerous international documents which are aimed at preventing it from happening and protecting the rights that are presented to people some of these documents are; Convention against Torture and Other Forms of Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT), United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, Declaration of Human Rights, (UDHR) and under the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court traffickingRead MoreThe Role Of Media And Its Impact On Emergency Management1428 Words   |  6 PagesMedia’s Role in Disasters The following is a research paper on the role of the media in disasters. This paper will highlight the various types of media and their impact on emergency management today. It will compare and contrast the negative and positive roles the media plays in a disaster. It will then examine the positive and negative roles the media plays in disasters and how this is relevant to emergency management. The concluding section of the paper will highlight the various types of mediaRead MoreThe Concept of ‘Just Development’3541 Words   |  15 PagesINTRODUCTION Non-Governmental Organizations are a significant potential force for promoting implementation of developmental programs and projects such as poverty alleviation in areas such as Africa and Zambia in particular. They have for example, pioneered participatory methods in project design and implementation and are strong advocates of strategies that view the poor as economic and social actors rather than passive recipients of welfare. This essay seeks to discuss the concept of ‘JustRead MoreEffective And Ineffective Work Life Balance3171 Words   |  13 Pageslife spaces available to an employee with support from top management/employers and governments. Consequences of effective and ineffective work life balance techniques result in improved employee retention, improved quality of life, employee satisfaction, low level of morale, low productivity level and ultimately impacts on organisational performance (Kumar,Harish 2013). Organisations and economies are presently more than ever faced with obstacles, and this places a demand for higher productivity

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

With Most Theories, There Are Shortcomings Which Need To

With most theories, there are shortcomings which need to be addressed to make sure that the theory is adequately representative of the topic which it is addressing. In the case of functionalism, it can be said that for all its shortcomings it is adequately supported by Action theory. It is the critiques of functionalism and how action theory has dealt with these critiques that will be discussed in this essay. Functionalism is the understanding that society should be understood as a series of interdependent parts but within the functional prerequisites that must be met. Action theory ‘views social life from the point of view of individual actors engaged in social processes’ (Josephides, 2017) and aims to deal with the deficiencies of†¦show more content†¦Merton’s ideas are often compared to Parson’s as it was Parson’s ideas of action theory that broadened Merton’s own appreciation of the flaws of functionalism. â€Å"although much imp ressed by Parsons as a master-builder of sociological theory, I found myself departing from his mode of theorizing (as well as his mode of exposition)† (Calhou, 2003.) It is the idea of functionalism as outdated that is discussed by Robert Merton in his collection of essays Social theory and Social structures in 1949. This, being the most severe of the critiques of functionalism leads us to see how the next critique has also come about. â€Å"just as the same item may have multiple functions, so may the same function be diversely fulfilled by alternative items† (Merton 1948/1968, 87–88). Merton also critiques functionalism stating that it is an ahistorical practice that has completely ignored the ideas of colonialism, a topic that we will delve deeper into when assessing the ethnographies that were initially used to create the theory of functionalism. He also states that behaviour is not voluntary it is constrained by social structures of class and social institu tions creating a further limiting factor. Merton believes that some societies that are non-literate also have high levels of integration showing howShow MoreRelatedCharles Darwin s Theory Of Natural Selection1408 Words   |  6 Pagesoffspring benefit in result of the heritable genes and eventually through generations, the variants will be spread throughout the entire population (Montgomery, 2009). Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection can be supported through both fossils and homologous structures. A technique that supports Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection is fossils. A fossil is the remnant or imprint of a previous animal embedded in rock and preserved in petrified form (J, Castro, 2013). Fossils are used and areRead MoreBehaviour Management Essay1653 Words   |  7 PagesThis essay will compare and contrast two theories of behaviour management by Carl Rogers and BF Skinner and argue ways in which one of these theories could be implemented for a particular context and practice. Roger’s theory is based on a humanistic approach, while Skinner’s theory takes a behaviourist approach; each theory has both benefits and shortcomings. Their views form opposite ends of the learning spectrum. These theories will be examined as their respective works address the underlying issueRead MoreStrategic Management Of Health Care Organization1583 Words   |  7 PagesPersonal strategic plan makes a roadmap of activity for the following year – giving a pr emise for choice making and norms by which to live. Here the organization chosen is related with health which supplies medicines and the name is ABX health industry. Making an individual vital arrangement is an effective practice in taking administration one could lead his own life. One has most likely encountered the dissatisfaction of attempting to juggle the parts as CEO, head, guardian, and mate and group partRead More aristotle Essay859 Words   |  4 Pagesargues that the political association is the highest form of human association , and making all his conclusions based on the assumption that ‘polis’ is the best and only sensible political system. He further adds that political association is the most sovereign and aims at the highest good Politics is largely an attempt to determine or rather prove that political association is the best suited way for securing the happiness of its members or as called in ‘politics’ the citizens .The interestRead MorePersonal Statement : Personal Strategic Management Plan1559 Words   |  7 PagesPersonal strategic plan makes a roadmap of activity for the following year – giving a premise for choice making and norms by which to live. Here the organization chosen is related with health which supplies medicines and the name is ABX health industry. Making an individual vital arrangement is an effective practice in taking administration one could lead his own life. One has most likely encountered the dissatisfaction of attempting to juggle the parts as CEO, head, guardian, and mate and group partRead MoreBudget - Advantage and Disadvantage1263 Words   |  6 Pagesand actions of the various departments, a business needs to have a plan for its operations. Planning the financial operations of a business is called budgeting. Although budgeting allows the organization to plan their work and work towards their plan, it also has both advantages as well shortcomings that can affect an organization’s progress. The main advantage of a budget is it compels management to think about the future, which is probably the most important feature of a budgetary planning and controlRead MoreCritique of Milton and Rose Friedman, Free to Choose.1587 Words   |  7 Pageswith him. This essay is a short critique of the theory by Milton and Rose Friedman, Free to choose: A personal statement, focusing on chapter 1. I will argue that Friedman is right in saying, Â… voluntary exchange is a necessary condition for both prosperity and freedom but that there are shortcomings in his theory. Voluntary exchange is defined as a trade of something which is done with both persons consent. For instance a problem with the theory Milton Friedman expresses through voluntary exchangeRead MoreMaslow s Hierarchy Of Needs1741 Words   |  7 Pagestwo theories: The Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and Herzberg’s. The Maslow’s hierarchy of needs include five levels, and at the certain extent, reflect the rule of human s activities on psychological and behavior. Herzberg’ describe the more details of worker agree or disagree about working. In this essay, more related knowledge details and effects will de described, then, analysis the two theories individua l, choose a better one. II. Describe the two theories. 2.1Maslow’s hierarchy of needs TheRead MoreScientific Taylorism And Taylorism s Theory851 Words   |  4 Pagesrun, created in the early 20th century by Frederick Taylor. Taylor created Taylorism in an attempt to increase and improve efficiency in firms. There were five keys components in his theory: - There would be a clear division in the tasks between workers and managers - The use of science to determine the best and most efficient way of doing a job - The use of science to hire the best qualified person for the job - Extensively training workers for their specialized job - Having surveillance on workersRead MoreLeaders Become Great, Not Because Of Their Power1581 Words   |  7 Pagesguiding principles to an effective leadership, which when properly implemented or applied on an individual of an organization; can turn them into future Leaders. With decades of hard work and research that has been put into this subject; we come across numerous models which have been postulated, many theories which have been formulated along with statistical proofs of their worthiness. With (House, 1996)charismatic theory, followed by Burns s (1978) theory on Transformational Leadership to Bass s (1985)

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay on Irony In Romeo and Juliet - 749 Words

Irony occurs when there is conflict about what was stated and what something really means. There are three main types of irony. Irony can make the difference in a good book, and a great book. It is in just about every scene of Romeo and Juliet. Shakespeare uses different types of irony for many reasons. The first type of irony is verbal irony. It starts being used in the very beginning of the play when the chorus says â€Å"Two households, both alike in dignity† (prologue). The chorus states they are dignified, but they are really very undignified. Another example is when Juliet says â€Å" I never shall be satisfied with Romeo until I behold him –dead – is my poor heart for a kingsman vex’d† (III, ii, 93-94). Juliet’s mother believes she wants†¦show more content†¦Last, but not least is dramatic irony. Dramatic irony is a situation where the audience knows more than the characters. Another word that is commonly used for dramatic irony, is tragic irony. Shakespeare uses this type of irony to add tension and make the story more expressive. An example of dramatic irony is when Romeo and Juliet make their marriage official. Romeo, Juliet, and the audience are the only people who know about the event. Paris also gets involved with a lot of irony due to the marital arrangements. Because of the hatred toward and from each of the families, Friar Lawerance has to take into consideration that his life, along with juliet’s and Romeo’s, could be in danger, due to the fact Romeo is a Montague and Juliet is a Capulet. With so many secretes being told in Verona, between to two families it is assumed that it is very upsetting for Romeo and Juliet because they are constantly worried about if their â€Å"one true love † is safe, and if they themselves are safe. There are very many risks with being so secretive. For instance, if Romeo’s and Juliet’s marriage was not secret then they would not have died. This is because if LordShow MoreRelatedDramatic Irony In Romeo And Juliet Analysis1067 Words   |  5 PagesRomeo and Juliet is the story of two â€Å"star-crossed lovers† (Shakespeare 807), from Verona, who desperately wanted to be together, which resulted in the tragic deaths of six peoples of the Montague and Capulet families. The play would not have had the same effect if there was not dramatic irony, though. Dramatic irony is when the audience knows something, like an important event, that one or more of the actors on stage are unaware of. Within the conversations between Juliet and Lady Capulet and BalthasarRead MoreEssay on Dramatic Irony in Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet809 Words   |  4 Pages Shakespeare uses irony to great effect in his many plays, specifically dramatic irony, and some cosmic irony, in the t ragedy of Romeo and Juliet. But why does he use it? What is he trying to achieve or portray? It varies throughout the play, but there are general trends as the story develops. In the beginning we see that it is almost comical uses. The irony then develops into more interesting and intriguing uses meant to keep the audience, especially the groundlings, interested and wanting moreRead MoreEssay about Dramatic Irony in Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet877 Words   |  4 PagesWilliam Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet is a tragic story about two lovers who are from two disputing families, and their eventual suicides. Shakespeare uses dramatic irony throughout the play to create tension for the audience and foreshadow the ending. Dramatic irony is when the words or actions of characters in a story have a different meaning to the reader than to the characters. This is because the reader knows something that the characters do not. Romeo and Juliet’s death could have been prevent edRead MoreShakespeares Use of Dramatic Irony In Romeo and Juliet Essay1416 Words   |  6 PagesShakespeares Use of Dramatic Irony In Romeo and Juliet I understand that the term, Dramatic irony is the irony that occurs when a situation, or speech for instance, is fully understood by the audience but not by the characters in the play. Shakespeare uses dramatic irony superbly throughout the play, because he leaves the audience in suspense and anticipation whilst leaving the theatre surrounded by tension. This is what I think makes the play a great tragedy becauseRead MoreRomeo and Juliet 5 Paragraph Essay1091 Words   |  5 PagesTragedy of Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare, dramatic irony is the driving method. Dramatic irony is something in which characters do not know something, but the reader or audience knows what the true reality is. According to some researchers, â€Å"A staple of Elizabethan and Shakespearean drama was dramatic irony† (Halio 25). Furthermore some researchers also belive that dramatic irony is very prominent in the play, â€Å" One of the more prominent literary devices in the play is irony† (Sauer 673)Read MoreTragic Hero in Othelo by William Shakespeare996 Words   |  4 Pagesyears. Compared to other Authors, he has a different style of writing but within his own writings, they are all very much alike. He has written many plays including Othello and Romeo and Juliet. Shakespeare was a man who wrote plays that followed the same literary conventions. These conventions inc luded tragic hero, fallacy, irony, and also suspense. A tragic hero is a male figure who is high in society and one who always has a tragic flaw. Most of them are rich and intelligent men. In the story of OthelloRead MoreLiterary Devices In Romeo And Juliet1738 Words   |  7 Pagesstories like Romeo and Juliet focused on more cynical darker themes. Literary devices like characterization, themes and imagery can help bring life to a story. Shakespeares unique use of these literary devices could make the audience feel a range of emotions. Shakespeares use of characteristics, setting, irony, foreshadowing and imagery in Romeo Juliet not only creates an everlasting story, but it also innovates and redefines a tragedy. The traits and qualities of the characters in Romeo JulietRead MoreWriting Devices in Romeo and Juliet Essay1059 Words   |  5 Pageswriters whose works have influenced society more than those of the English playwright William Shakespeare. His use of language in all of his plays, especially Romeo and Juliet, is one that impacts its audience both emotionally and intellectually. For anyone wishing to pursue a career specifically in the Language Arts, the play Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare should be continued to be studied and analyzed for its unique and clever uses of English dialect. One creative use of language in theRead MoreEssay on The Inner Struggles of Romeo and Juliet1019 Words   |  5 PagesIn the tragedy Romeo and Juliet, Shakespeare presents the inner struggles of Romeo and Juliet, the two protagonists as one of the main themes. This is clearly shown at the end of Act 3 Scene 2 when Juliet receives the news that Romeo has been banished and Tybalt has been killed. Juliet is distraught at the conflict of her loyalties. Should she express love for her family or should she express love for Romeo? By using many different language features, such as oxymorons, paradox, antithesis and dramaticRead MoreShakespeares Romeo and Juliet vs. West Side Story Essay735 Words   |  3 PagesRomeo Juliet vs. West Side Story Shakespeares is one of the most read writers ever and his writing was so successful that not just one group of people liked it. He did this by relating to his audience using universal truths. . Human emotions are not something that change over time and they are also known as universal truths; love, hate, revenge, and envy are all examples of universal truths. This play was so successful that many other movies have copied the plot but changed the scenery. Over

Sonnet 104 Free Essays

Essay: Sonnet 104 Sonnet 104 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English poet William Shakespeare. It’s a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a fair friend. Each stanza expresses Shakespeare’s relationship with his beloved. We will write a custom essay sample on Sonnet 104 or any similar topic only for you Order Now The sonnet deals with the destructive forces of time as humans grow older and makes a commentary on the process of aging. In the first quatrain, the poet focuses on his beloved, exploring the theme of beauty and aging. The very beginning of the quatrain begins with â€Å"To me†, and in the second line, ends with â€Å"eye I eyed. These two phrases signified that what he was writing was from his own perspective. The poet did not consider the opinion of the reader and later in the quatrain, continues this theme when he states, â€Å"Such seems† in the third line. This quatrain was a commentary on the beauty of his beloved friend. The poet acknowledges that this is his perspective; yet he does not acknowledge the perspective of anyone else. These lines also discuss that his beloved friend is as beautiful as when they first met and that his opinion of beauty is not judged upon the reader. In the second quatrain, the poet focuses on time passing the significance of evolution. This theme progresses with the continual mentioning of seasons. The poet wants to emphasize the three years that have passed. The natural cycle between seasons emphasizes the time passing. â€Å"Summers pride† gives way to â€Å"winters cold†, â€Å"beauteous springs† give way to â€Å"yellow autumn†, and April perfumes make way to the â€Å"hot Junes burnd†. This is not only a commentary on how much time has passed, but also a commentary on how beauty can fade. As stated in the phrases listed above, the changes in seasons always lead to a different landscape. With this evolution, it is only natural that beauty fades. However, the poet makes is blatantly clear in the eighth line that his beloved never changes. This last line of the quatrain shows that his beloved is a fresh beauty. The use of the words â€Å"green† and â€Å"fresh† signify his beloved’s youthfulness and prove that he has defied nature. This breaking of the cycle proves to be a powerful use of language and diction. In the third quatrain, the poet recognizes that his beliefs are unnatural, and creates a shift in the sonnet. The ninth line instigates the shift once the poet writes, â€Å"Ah, yet†. This sign tone and shift in perception help him come to a realization. This recognition proves that the poet is fooling himself about his friend’s beauty. The â€Å"dial-hand† mentioned in the ninth line signifies that even though his beloved friend is actually aging, he only sees him to be beautiful. This metaphor is a perfect representation of his perception of beauty. As the quatrain continues he explains that his eye deceives him of reality. Like a clock hand moves slowly, he slowly recognizes reality. In conclusion, sonnet 104 is a commentary on the poet’s perception versus reality. The poet ends the sonnet by announcing that no one, after he and his beloved die, could ever understand what beauty really is. The height of beauty was when his fair friend lived. Beauty was and will always be understood as a part of his writing. Though his friend may not be living, his beauty still lies within the poet’s literature. How to cite Sonnet 104, Essay examples

Travel and Tourism

Question: Write an essay onTravel and tourism. Answer: Introduction Travel and tourism is a good venture that can be financed and generate desirable revenue that are profitable to both the organization in particular and its funders. The report covers the areas of consideration that should be looked at to ensure the Best City Hotel Plc extends its operations effectively and also to increase revenue generation. The areas analyzed include the key five sources of finance that can enhance funding of a Tourism and Travel stake, behavior of costs and how they are likely to affect profits, the pricing techniques that are best in winning customers trust, cost volume and analysis (Barrow, 2015). The travel and tourism venture can be considered as a social, cultural as well as economic phenomenon that entails movement of the people to various places or countries beyond their usual environment either for business/ professional or personal reasons. The parties involved are referred to as visitors being either tourists or excursionists. The whole travel and tourism undertakings have to do with tourism some of which takes the perspective of the tourism financing and in particular tourism expenditure. It is imperative to note that there is the broad scope of the travel which further encompasses various activities that take into consideration of the domestic, inbound and outbound (Buhalis, 2013). World Tourism report accounts that by 2004 the United Kingdom had registered more than 750 million global tourists in various travel and tourism firms. It is as a result of simplified support services pertaining travel. For instance, airline services have become convenient and easily accessible. Therefore, tourists can book tickets online and get directed effectively to their destination. Due to the increased travel rate, the Hotel also needs to be extended and its services improved to best. However, travel and tourism are growing and expected to heighten more due convenience and service provision in this industry. The Hotel will nevertheless, grab the opportunity of giving the international and local tourists charge able services (ChaÃÅ' vez-Presa, 2014). As far as technology is concerned, it has an immense impact in the sector of travel and industry. The standard websites that have a winning power should be used to enable the Hotel perform some of its services online. In so doing, any tourist can explore the Hotels best nature and able to undertake bookings online before they travel, such that they are sure to get excellent accommodation and catering by the time they will travel. In the United Kingdom, most tourists are foreigners and a few United Kingdom citizens (Duffy, 2012). Sources of funding/financing The Hotel can be funded through many ways depending on their accessibility and convenience. There are a variety of financing sources but, the manager will select a few of them that are most suitable for the Hotel operations. However, some of the key sources are discussed below. Loans from financial institutions In the United Kingdom, the funds can be sourced by borrowing from banks or microfinance institutions. It is the best source of finance since the business can borrow enough money to fund its operations and services at once. It is also advantageous to borrow from the banks or microfinance so that the enterprise can have one lender rather than having many sources which may be inconvenient for the Hotels well functioning (Orrison, 2013). Borrowing from these institutions is more reliable because they give the company an opportunity to negotiate the repayment of the loan. However, banks and microfinance institutions are easy to lend funds to businesses are have a potential to expand and grow. The institutions can give short term loans that are payable within two years or long term loans that are repayable for more than five years (Evans David, 2013). Ordinary shares These shares are issued to the company possessors of the firm. Ordinary shares are also known as equity shares. They are often given for cash. The issue cost is normally same or greater than the nominal measure. The dividends of the shares have the rights to control the operations and also the stockholders (Kotler, Dholakia, Hasan, 2014). The equity shares are issued in more than one way. These ways are as follows: Public offers In this method, the company the gives the list of the shares to the public. The method has the ability to attract many people and help the business acquire huge amounts of money that it usually requires. Offer for sale In this technique, the public is called for to buy the shares that already exist. It is mostly used to remove all or some of the business holdings. However, the surviving shareowners take vantage floatation of the shares through aggregating them and selling them at the initial price. Retained profits The Hotel can utilize the profits it generates to finance itself and undertake various expansions and improve the services as well. Retained profit in the Hotel is the best and cheap source of finance. It is because the funds do not attract any interest and if in any case it may be repaid, it is usually interest free. In this way, the company will be able to reduce the cost of operation (Feinberg, Kinnear Taylor, 2013). Venture funds In this kind of source, the funds are majorly sourced from the persons who have a potential to finance a business by giving reasonable amounts of money. Also, investors can give funds to boost the company and this is considered to be venture funds or capital. The venture capital is always given when a company is starting or the one that has been making loses and management feels the firm can improve if it is financed to retrieve its operational services. The source is very dangerous to some extent because the enterprise can be funded but, fails to perform within the required standards that are set. The business can collapse and the funders get a loss. Those who finance this kind of method, have to wait for long periods because the business has to make profit and be able operate before paying them. The company through this source of financing is likely to reduce operational cost given that the funds do not attract interests as the money is not a loan (Enz, 2013). Government Help In this source of financing, the government of the United Kingdom can be requested by the management of the Hotel to fund the Hotel under the terms and conditions that can be agreed upon. The UK government is always willing to fund any enterprise that contributes to the economy of the country. Funds offered by the government are always convenient because they attract little or no interests. However, the government will not be so strict on repaying the money unlike banks and financial institution (Murphy Murphy, 2014). The behavior of costs Any shift of the functioning of the company leads to changes in the behavior of costs. An important tool a manager should have is the knowledge of the behavior of the costs. The behavior enhances the manager to plan and use the resources available effectively and moderate the cost of the organization to expected standards. A manager should understand how every aspect of production leads to change in cost. Each action undertaken in the organization has an impact in the behavior of cost. It is therefore his role to define the changes that are beneficial to the company and those that are for personal interests. The costs can be divided into variable, mixed and fixed costs (Moutinho, 2014). Variable costs Here, when the cost changes, production quantity or quantity also changes. Whenever production is high, production level also heightens while when the cost decreases production diminishes too. Below are graphs that demonstrate the changes in costs. The fixed costs remain constant within a particular period. However, fixed costs incur when there are no units for the production. Mixed costs They are not applicable when in raw. They exhibit the features for both variable, fixed costs. For mixed costs to be helpful, they are further divided into variable and fixed. They are also referred to as semi-variable costs. Cost Volume and Profit Analysis (CVP) The relationship that connects price, quantity and profit is well studied by the cost volume and the profit analysis. The cost volume and profit analysis enhances the manager to plan well on issues regarding revenue generation. Other tasks like the budget planning and other financial functions are organized well with the aid of cost volume and profit analysis. Most important, it gives the general look of the process for profit planning (Moutinho, 2014). Significance Cost Volume and Profit Analysis (CVP) Management strongly requires the cost volume and profit analysis, so that it gives the overview of the impacts and inter-connection among the changes that control profit realization. In this way, it will be easier to build a revenue sub-structure. In order to realize highest profits and get rid of loses the cost volume and profit analysis should be in practice. To understand the importance of cost volume and profit analysis more, it is divided into contribution margin and break-even point (Moutinho, 2014). volume-profit chart/break-even point It usually means a point where fixed cost (FC) and variable costs (VC) are equal to the sales revenue. It is given by; Break Even = VC + FC The graph below shows the break-even point Contribution margin It refers to the profit or income the business that is available before subtracting the costs. Strategies for pricing The manager in the company requires to strongly pay attention to the pricing strategies. The nature of pricing a manager applies, may either attract many customers and generate more or sometimes lead to collapsing. It depend s on how well they are applied and at what season. It is good to understand that the tourism and travel sector is service based (Kim, 2015). Thus, measuring the cost is challenging but, all efforts should be shown to perfect the pricing. However, there are various considerations to look at. They are as follows. Season pricing This is a winning strategy that ensures the customers are satisfied in all seasons. Even though it is difficult to vary prices form season to season, it is recommended that prices should vary from peak season to low season. During special events or holidays the pricing criteria should be used carefully to attract more customers. Giving discounts Is a form appreciation the customers that the company really appreciates them buying the services. Discounts encourage them buy more services because they feel that they are enjoying affordable and quality services. Allocating commissions Commissions encourage the customers and feel to belong to the business and that they have a role to play. For instance, the marketing team can give a 20 percent commission to any visitor who refers a friend. Each customer will strive to invite or refer a friend to earn a commission. Recommendation In the current business world, pricing decisions are based on the nature of the products offered. Importantly, quality services attract valued prices as compared to weak services. Some of the distinct service characteristics that influence pricing decision entail; Service perishability, this implies the fact that service duration period is limited. Demand fluctuation heavily influence price levels. During peak seasons, the management can attract premium prices while during low tourism season, it is important for the management to attract price levels that will attract more customers. This may entail normal prices but coupled with discount offers that are distinct from the competitors. Despite the fact that most of the services are homogeneous, it is wise for the management to distinctly differentiate their services and also prices as compared to the competitors. Ensuring that the prices offered adequately cater for the cost of the services, it is a wise move that ensures sustainabili ty of the venture(Feinberg, Kinnear Taylor, 2013). Furthermore, the management is expected to put into consideration some of the pricing concepts such as the intrinsic value, time value and volatility of price function. The price intrinsic of a service is the amount attributable to a given service. The management is mandated with the role of ensuring that service price is commensurate to the service value offered. Quality services attract high value and therefore management should ensure the organization offers very distinctive services to win customer satisfaction levels (Kim, 2015). Conclusion In the pricing decisions, the management should factor in some of the concepts like breakeven point. When pricing for the organizational products, it is important to ensure that the prices are competitive enough to ensure that they cater for the costs incurred. Being wise enough to cover operational cost ensures that the organization is self-sufficient and can generate a profitable revenue (Stickney, 2013). However, when making pricing decisions management should introduce pricing payment offers such as cash discount, the subscription criteria benefits. For instance, the first ten customers to get discount and also membership subscription fee for the organizational activities. This is a strategic decision tool that enriched customers loyalty hence moving the group to gain market niche and an edge in the competitiveness hence advancing its growth and productivity (Schroeder, 2015). References Barrow, C. (2015). Enterprise development: the challenges of starting, growing and selling businesses. London, Thomson. Buhalis, D. (2013). eTourism: Information Technology for Strategic Tourism Management. ChaÃÅ' vez-Presa, J. A. (2014). Economies of scale, economies of scope, and structural change in the Mexican commercial banking system. Duffy, R. (2012). A trip too far: ecotourism, politics, and exploitation. London, Earthscan. https://public.eblib.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=430100. 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